June 24, 2011 § 1 Comment
Illegal immigration means, migration of foreign citizens into a particular country where such people do not meet the legal requirements for immigrating to that country. In simple terms, they violate the immigration laws of that jurisdiction. Illegal immigration, in general consists of people from poor countries pursuing better life opportunities in more developed countries.
The flow of illegal immigration is almost entirely from countries of lower socioeconomic levels to countries of higher socioeconomic levels, and particularly from developing nations to developed nations. While there are many other reasons associated with immigration, the most common motivation for illegal immigrants is the pursuit of greater economic opportunities and quality of life in the destination country.
Potential immigrants believe the probability and benefits of successfully migrating to the destination country are greater than the costs. These costs may include restrictions living as an illegal immigrant, leaving family and ways of life behind, and the probability of being caught and probably resulting in sanctions.
The neoclassical economic model focuses only at the probability of success in immigrating and finding employment, and the increase in real income an illegal immigrant generally expects. Illegal workers in this model are successful in finding employment by being willing to be paid lower wages than native-born workers are, sometimes even below the minimum wage.
A bifurcating labor market in developed countries creates a demand for unskilled immigrant labor to fill undesirable jobs that native-born citizens do not wish to take, regardless of the wages offered. These so-called “underclass” jobs are jobs such as harvesting crops, unskilled labor in landscaping and construction, house-cleaning, and maid and busboy work in hotels and restaurants, all of which have a significant number of illegal workers and such jobs native-born citizens do not take.
Since there is a decline in the middle-class blue-collar jobs in manufacturing and industry, native-born youth have chosen to acquire higher degrees now that there are fewer blue-collar careers that a worker with no formal education can find. The majority of new blue-collar jobs are the “underclass” work as mentioned earlier, and things to highlight are its unreliability (being temporary), subservient roles and a lack of room for advancement.
Whereas, entry-level white-collar and service jobs are much more appealing and encouraging. They offer advancement opportunities for native-born workers to enter the dominant educated class, even if the job pays the same or less than manual labor does. Hence, this theory maintains that, in a developed country like the US, where now only 12% of the labor force has less than a high school education, there is a lack of native-born workers who have no other alternative but to take undesirable manual labor jobs.
Illegal immigrants, on the other hand, have much lower levels of education. They are still willing to take “underclass” jobs due to their much higher relative wages than those in their home country. Since illegal immigrants often anticipate working only temporarily in the destination country, the lack of opportunity for advancement does not pose as a problem for them. This was proved by a Pew Hispanic Center poll of over 3,000 illegal immigrants from Mexico in the US, which stated that 79% would voluntarily join in a temporary work that will allow them to work legally for several years but then required them to leave.
Per the structural demand theory, just the willingness to work undesirable jobs, rather than for unusually low wages, is what gives illegal immigrants, an employment. The theory also states that cases like this prove that there is no direct competition between unskilled illegal immigrants and native-born workers. It is just that illegal immigrants “take jobs that no one else wants”.
March 30, 2011 § 3 Comments
The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly the INS) is the official government agency that manages the entire immigration related matters in the United States.
The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) were earlier known as the Bureau of Immigration and the Bureau of Naturalization (BCIS) since 1903. The INS was established on 10 June 1933 with its merger to administer matters related to established immigration and naturalization policy. The INS ceased to exist under that name on 1st March, 2003, when most of its functions were transferred to three new agencies within the newly created Department of Homeland Security, as part of a major government re organization after September 11 attacks of 2001.
How is the INS Referred to Today?
The administration of all immigration services, including permanent residence, naturalization, asylum, and other functions came under the the responsibility of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (BCIS), which existed only for a short time before changing to its current name, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
While applying for a visa or green card, immigration forms are to be filed either at the American Consulate or with the USCIS (formerly the INS) if the applicant is in the US. The USCIS (formerly the INS) is the authority that processes all the applications/petitions filed in the US.
The Application Process:
After you send the completed application/petition to the USCIS (formerly the INS) along with the correct fee and supporting documents, you will receive an Application Receipt Notice that has a 13-character application receipt number. This number generally starts with EAC, WAC, LIN, or SRC. You can track the status of your application using this number while the application.
If you want to check the status of your case with the application receipt number, you may visit the USCIS’s website, http://www.uscis.gov and select the link entitled “Case Status Online” and enter the application receipt number. If you do not have a receipt number, you can click “Processing Times” that you will find on the USCIS “Case Status Online” page to find out how long USCIS takes to process certain applications. Processing times differ according to the type of application you filed and the location of the USCIS Application Service Center (ASC) where your application was filed. If you do not receive any notice from the USCIS (formerly the INS) even after thirty days of having submitted your application, you can contact them at their toll-free telephone number and talk to their customer service representatives who will provide you with the necessary guidance regarding the application submitted.
Applicants and their representatives (lawyers, charitable groups, or corporations) who are in need of regular access to information about the multiple cases they submitted can create an account to get this information easily. The services provided by USCIS (formerly the INS) to both such account types are similar except for the fact that applicants’ representatives can have their own internal office tracking number with each receipt number when dealing with multiple cases.
In addition to this, a new program provides the option where you can receive a text message notification to your US mobile phone number whenever a case status update happens. Applicants and representatives can avail this facility to receive this notification. However, Standard Messaging Rates or other charges related to such these notifications may apply. Applicants and their representatives can also receive case status updates at their e-mail address.
March 5, 2011 § Leave a comment
The US Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly the INS) is the government agency that takes care of the entire immigration process in the US.
If you are applying to legally stay in the US, certain immigration forms/petitions have to be filed either at the American Consulate in your home country or with the USCIS (formerly the INS) if you are in the US. These applications are available on the INS website. The help of attorneys and other private websites is sought regularly as the forms can be sophisticated at times. All immigration related applications filed in the US will be processed by the USCIS
The Application Process:
After you select the appropriate forms, you have to complete it and mail it to the designated USCIS (formerly the INS) office along with the fee and supporting documents. As a confirmation for having received your application, the USCIS will send an Application Receipt Notice within thirty days that will have a 13-character Application Receipt number. This number normally starts with EAC, WAC, LIN, or SRC. You can have this notice as proof that you have applied. Furthermore, you can monitor the progress of your application with this number.
If you received this receipt number and wish to check the status of your case, you may visit http://www.uscis.gov and enter this number under the link “Case Status Online”. If you do not have a receipt number, you can find out how long USCIS takes to process such type of applications by clicking “Processing Times” that is listed on the USCIS “Case Status Online” page. But in this case, you can only know how long USCIS takes to process such applications and it may not be specific to your case. Application Processing times are categorized according to the type of application you filed and also related to the USCIS Application Service Center (ASC) where your application was filed. At times you will not receive any notification from the USCIS (formerly the INS) even after thirty days of having submitted your application. In such a case, you can contact them at their toll-free telephone line and talk to their customer service representatives who will guide you further.
Another facility related to checking status is also available for applicants and their representatives (such as lawyers, charitable groups, or corporations). Such persons who are in need of regular access to information about their multiple cases can create an account to get this information easily. The services provided by USCIS (formerly the INS) to both account types are similar except that applicants’ representatives can enter their own internal office tracking number with each receipt number to deal with multiple cases.
Moreover, there is a new program that provides the option where you can receive a text message notification to your US mobile phone number whenever an update to a case status happens. Applicants and their representatives can avail this facility to receive such text message notification. However, note that Standard Messaging Rates or other charges related to these notifications may apply for such text messages. Applicants and their representatives can also receive automatic case status updates through e-mail as well. These options prove handy to applicants as the processing time for applications differ.